The majority of the breeding population is on the remote Antipodes and Bounty Islands, with smaller numbers on the Auckland Islands. Stragglers are often seen at other subantarctic islands in the New Zealand region and some make it to the New Zealand mainland, usually to moult. One of the largest of the crested penguins, the erect-crested penguin stands at approx 50cm and weighs up to 4kg. The parallel, brush-like crests identify adults of this species, however it is easily confused with the Fiordland and Snares crested penguins. Key identification features are the strip of bare skin on the bottom edge of the bill and the crest starting at the gape of the bill. In both Fiordland and Snares penguins the crest starts at the base of the top plate of the bill.